Every year students from America’s top medical schools fail the USMLE. We know because many of them come to us, and we have helped students from 15 of the Top 25 medical schools in the country. Whether you are a US MD student, an IMG or a DO student, it is possible to fail the USMLE, AND it is also possible to bounce back and conquer it.  

Failure is always a difficult experience, but failing a high stakes exam like USMLE Step 1 can be particularly devastating. It can be difficult to get up and dust yourself off in preparation to start the process over again. You may have all kinds of negative thoughts swirling through your head. “Was that my only chance? Did I just ruin my career? What will happen with my student loans? Do people ever recover from something like this? Will I still be able to match into a solid residency program?”

Rest assured: You are not alone and you can prevail. The important thing is how you deal with failure and what you do now to improve your chances of succeeding the next time around. Let’s get to work!

Look Within

Many people will reflexively find reasons outside of themselves for why they failed the exam. Things like, “My school didn’t prepare me well,” or, “The exam was heavy on my only weak areas” may enter your mind. Some medical students will blame others for giving them bad advice on how to study for the exam.

Even if these things are partly true, we advise that you take responsibility for your decisions and situation so you can change them for the better. Excuses and blame won’t help your cause. It is absolutely essential to take ownership of your failure so that you can take control of your future.

Your success is within your control. You are the master of your own destiny – as long as you are ready to be honest and brave.

Start with a soul-searching appraisal of your previous attempt. Ask yourself questions like these:

  • Did I really give the test 110% effort? Or, did I study too much without time to breathe, rest and retain information?
  • Did I confront my weaknesses head on? 
  • Was I using only the most important resources and nothing extra that would just complicate matters?
  • Was I making effective and honest use of assessment tools? Was I adapting to the results?
  • Was I willing to ask for help when I was lost? Did I ask the right person?
  • Was I leveraging the power of flash cards? 
  • Were my timeline and study plan appropriate? Did I choose my test date wisely?

The answers to these questions will point you toward the changes that need to be made to succeed this time around.

NRMP Program Director Survey Results, 2018

The National Resident Matching Program (NRMP) performs a “biennial survey of the directors of all programs participating in the Main Residency Match.” From this year’s data (see Figure 1 on pg. 3)1, the factors that were ranked by the program directors to be of greatest importance “in selecting applicants to interview” are (in descending order):

  • Applicant was flagged with Match violation by the NRMP
  • Any failed attempt in USMLE/COMLEX
  • Evidence of professionalism and ethics
  • Perceived commitment to specialty
  • Grades in clerkship in desired specialty
  • Letters of recommendation in the specialty
  • Passing USMLE Step 2 CS/COMLEX Level 2 PE
  • Audition elective/rotation within your department
  • Personal prior knowledge of the applicant
  • USMLE Step 1/COMLEX Level 1 score
  • Grades in required clerkships
  • Leadership qualities
  • Perceived interest in program
  • Visa status (IMGs only)

So, yes — a failed attempt at the USMLE or COMLEX is indeed high on the list of the factors that program directors consider. However, pull back and look at the larger picture of these top ranking factors: There are many other areas that go into decision making process, many of which are within your control.

Next Steps

The most important thing for you to do after failing Step 1 or Level 1 is to talk to your academic advisor and get a solid plan of attack together. To state the obvious, you want to put this test behind you once and for all, and we are here to assure you that it can be done — we have worked with countless students who have recovered from a prior failure to go on to be successful.

Once you’ve talked to your advisor, it’s critical that you set yourself up for success this time around on your exam. We want to stress that the #1 factor we’ve seen contribute to a repeat failure is students rushing to take the next attempt without giving themselves the proper amount of time to prepare.

Don’t believe us? According to the 2018 Step 1 Administrations Performance Data from the NBME®2, 67% of US MD testers, 73% of DO, and 44% of International repeat testers passed.

Assessment: The Key to Moving Forward

With those important answers in mind, you are almost ready to begin creating your new study plan. The last essential element is a specific assessment of your current status. Before diving in once more, you must figure out what your strengths and weaknesses are so you know what to concentrate on for your next try. 

The best way to do this is with an NBME self-assessment exam. Since it has been at least a few weeks since you’ve sat for the exam, you will likely score 10-20 points lower than you did on your actual exam. This, in itself, can be disconcerting. However, it is very important that you do this before you begin your new study plan because this initial assessment will serve a few key purposes:

  • To gauge how much time you need to reach your goal
  • As a baseline to assess your progress on subsequent NBMEs
  • To assess which subjects you are weakest in and need the most work (Hint: it is also worth comparing the NBME self-assessment score report with your official USMLE score report to see if there are any patterns worth taking note of as you assign priority to different subjects and systems)

If you’re not sure how much time you’ll need, here are some rough guidelines:

These guidelines assume you’ve made constructive changes to your preparations to avoid previous mistakes and correct habits that did not set you up for success.


Your foundation is mostly solid. Depending on your target score, you will likely need an additional 2-4 weeks of dedicated study.


Your foundation is wobbly. You will likely need 4-6 weeks of dedicated study. Strongly consider working with a tutor to cover as much ground as efficiently and quickly as possible.

160s or below

A score in this range shows a fundamental lack of knowledge that will be difficult to remediate in a short Step 1 study period. In this case, a review course or remediation are the best steps to take.

Note: You cannot take a year off and come back with a 270+ score.

Regular Reassessment: Make Sure You Are on Track

One of the biggest mistakes that leads to a failed USMLE is fear of NBME practice tests. If you really want to conquer the USMLE, it is necessary to face this fear and get the most from each and every available NBME test. 

Taking practice tests regularly and adapting according to your performance can make the difference between failure and success. This is what allows you to face weaknesses head on and FIX THEM by fine tuning your study plan and schedule as you progress. Your initial plan may be very well-thought-out on paper, but how will you know if you need to switch directions midway, or even just make small adjustments, if you don’t reassess? Don’t take any chances—reassess your progress and your plan early and often. 

What Scores Specialties Look For

The chances of matching into the most competitive fields — such as dermatology, orthopedics, etc. — are the primary place a failure on Step 1 or Level 1 impacts. If you haven’t reviewed the NRMP’s “Charting the Outcomes in the Match” data, now’s a good time to do so. (There are different data sets by AllopathicOsteopathic and International Medical Graduates.)

For example, if you look at the NRMP’s Chart 6 for US Allopathic applicants3, you can see ranges of Step 1 scores by specialty — both by those of accepted applicants and those who were not accepted:

Screen Shot 2019-08-07 at 9.17.18 AM

Source: National Resident Matching Program, Charting Outcomes in the Match: U.S. Allopathic Seniors, 2018. National Resident Matching Program, Washington, DC 2018.

Remember What You Are Fighting For

As we said before, we have helped countless students through this process, so remember that you are not alone and this can be done. The path you anticipated taking through med school may look a little different, but if you take the right steps to set yourself up for success, and — most importantly — you believe in your ability to succeed, you will be well on your way.

At the end of the day, you are not your score. It is only one factor in the bigger picture of your role as a future physician. See this test for what it is: a necessary box to check on the way to your career, and remind yourself of why you got into medicine in the first place. 

The USMLE is not just a test—it’s a means to the end of becoming a physician. Often this is lost in the process of retaking the USMLE, and it is important that you keep that special end in mind. Try to envision yourself practicing medicine in the future. Imagine yourself helping patients to heal and lead healthy lives. Picture their faces and try to feel the gratification you will experience.

This is what you are fighting for. And this is what makes this seemingly unfair and overwhelming exam worthwhile.

Moreover, we know that when students prepare well for the USMLE they strengthen their clinical reasoning skills in ways that truly make them better doctors. Our students are not only better prepared to take the USMLE; they are also ready to impress their attendings during clinical rotations. Use your USMLE preparation as a chance to raise your clinical aptitude so you can be a more effective physician.

Do Whatever It Takes to Prevail

As long as it’s legal, healthy and ethical, we encourage our students to do whatever it takes, take no prisoners and pour their entire beings into studying for 1-2 months to achieve their goals. Whether we like it or not, and whether it is fair or not, that is what the USMLE demands. 

Sometimes this means knowing when to ask for help. In general, we physicians and aspiring physicians tend to be a stubborn group. We like to think of ourselves as hard-working, intelligent, resourceful and successful individuals. While these are all excellent character traits, they also can make it difficult for us to ask for help when needed. With that said, it takes great strength of character, honesty and humility to realize when you need help to get you where you want to go.

This does not mean that you have to hire a coach or tutor from Med School Tutors, but we are here for you. We trust that if you follow this advice, you will know what you need to ensure you excel. We’ll be here if we can help make that happen. It’s what we do.


1) National Resident Matching Program, Data Release and Research Committee: Results of the 2018 NRMP Program Director Survey. National Resident Matching Program, Washington, DC. 2018. 

2) Copyright © 1996-2019 Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) and National Board of Medical Examiners® (NBME®). All rights reserved. The United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE® ) is a joint program of the FSMB and the NBME.

3) National Resident Matching Program, Charting Outcomes in the Match: Allopathic, Osteopathic and International Medical Graduate Editions, 2018.