A 55-year-old woman presents to the OB/Gyn clinic complaining of pain during intercourse, after which she experiences vaginal bleeding and foul discharge. She reports that she had multiple sexual partners in her youth, but has been monogamous for twenty years and has since had three children. She admits that has not seen a gynecologist in several years.
On physical exam, she is pale and her cervix is nodular, with what grossly appears to be some dysplasia. Which of the following organisms is the most likely cause of her condition?
a. Epstein Barr virus (EBV)
b. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
c. Human papilloma virus (HPV)
d. Human T lymphotrophic virus, type 1 (HTLV-1)
e. Schistosoma hematobium